Geospatial Data Formats are standardized file structures used to store and exchange geospatial data. These formats specify how geographic information, including coordinates, attributes, and geometry, is organized and encoded in digital files.
Common geospatial data formats include:
Shapefile (.shp): A widely used format for storing vector data, such as points, lines, and polygons, along with associated attributes.
Keyhole Markup Language (.kml/.kmz): A format used for displaying geographic information in 2D and 3D, often associated with Google Earth.
GeoTIFF (.geotiff): A raster data format that combines geospatial information with TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) imagery, commonly used for satellite and aerial imagery.
GML (Geography Markup Language): An XML-based format for encoding geographic information, often used in web services and geographic databases.
NetCDF (Network Common Data Form): A format used for multidimensional scientific data, including atmospheric and oceanographic data.
LAS (LIDAR Data Exchange Standard): A format for storing LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) point cloud data, commonly used in terrain modeling and 3D mapping.
DBF (dBase File): A simple database file format often used to store attribute data associated with shapefiles.
The choice of data format depends on the type of geospatial data being handled and the intended use case. Compatibility with specific software applications and the requirements of data sharing and analysis also influence the selection of data formats.
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